TT by Indonesia Railway
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Technology in Society XX (2003) XXX–XXX
International technology transfer and
distribution of technology capabilities: the case
of railway creation in Dalam negri
Kartiko Putranto ∗, Wear Stewart, Graham Moore
Intercontinental Technologies Centre (IDTC), Department of Detrimental and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Technology capabilities include numerous abilities via project intending to learning. In developing countries, technology copy is often accomplished in order to enhance the local technology capabilities. By using a case study of railway technology transfer to Indonesia, this content endeavours to supply empirical data that these features are sent out among neighborhood institutions. This distribution is in reality a way for producing countries to obtain a complex technological system simply by combining all their various neighborhood resources. Seeing that newer solutions tend to be more intricate, in the future, more accumulating capacities through technology transfer, the transferees will certainly achieve even more by learning in a systemic environment. 2003 Elsevier Science Limited. All legal rights reserved.
Keywords: Indonesia; Train; Technology capability; Technology copy
1 . Introduction
This newspaper relates intercontinental technology transfer to the development of local technology capabilities. Stages in technology transfer will be identiﬁed. A specific stress is usually put on the value of a responses stage. Furthermore, based on the literature, types of technology capabilities happen to be linked to every single stage. In the literature, technology capabilities have been completely discussed in three levels: ﬁrm level, industrial part level, and national level . The capacities discussed with this paper aren't at a national level (e. g. [2, 3]) nor they are really conﬁned in a ﬁrm level (e. g. [4, 5]). This kind of study ∗
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Email address: t. [email protected] unimelb. edu. au (K. Putranto).
0160-791X/03/$ -- see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science Limited. All privileges reserved. doi: 10. 1016/S0160-791X(02)00035-0
ARTICLE IN PRESS
K. Putranto et al. / Technology in World XX (2003) XXX–XXX
targets a branch/ﬁeld level. Yet , this study does not consider the ﬁeld as being consisting by industrial sectors with related business (e. g. ). The exceptional point which the authors keep pace with highlight can be described as ﬁeld consisting by several actors, with different backgrounds, in which their communications are essential.
The problem put forward from this paper can be when the capacities needed to learn a particular ﬁeld are given away among a lot of actors. This is a consequence of the limited methods in expanding countries. Yet , this can be viewed as an opportunity to build a synergy among the list of local assets. This problem can be addressed through a case study of railway development in Indonesia, in particular through technology copy of electric railcars for metropolitan rail transport in Jakarta. Railway travel has a very long history in Indonesia. The ﬁrst railroad in Dalam negri was opened in 1868 in Java, during the period of Nederlander colonization. By 1940s the railway network had propagate throughout Java and some elements of Sumatera area. The total path length involved 6000 kilometres, most of which will still remains to be today. After independence 66 years ago, the railway operation came under Indonesian administration. Due to political instability near your vicinity, the state train struggled to survive for over 20 years. Inside the mid 1971s, the government made a decision to revitalize the railway network. This insurance plan was backed up by the institution of a moving stock market, PT. INKA, in 81. The government's aim was to transform this kind of industry by a workshop to a full-scale rolling share industry through technology transfer. The government played out a direct role in the transfer processes. The complexities from the products and the limited...
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