Poverty Dynamics of Female-Headed Households in Pakistan: Proof from Pihs 2000-01 and Pslm 2004-05

 Poverty Aspect of Female-Headed Households in Pakistan: Facts from Pihs 2000-01 and Pslm 2004-05 Essay

PIDE Working Documents 2011: 70

Poverty Mechanics of Female-headed Households in Pakistan: Facts from PIHS 2000-01 and PSLM 2004-05

Umer Khalid

Pakistan Microfinance Network, Islamabad

and Sajjad Akhtar

Middle for Exploration on Poverty Reduction and Income Division, Islamabad


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Pakistan Institute of Expansion Economics Islamabad, Pakistan Email-based: [email protected] org. pk Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk Fax: +92-51-9248065 Designed, composed, and finished at the Publications Section, PIDE.

ITEMS Page Subjective I. Intro II. Literature Review 3. Comparative Account of FHHS Socio-economic Status IV. Synopsis and Insurance plan Implications Appendix References List of Tables Table 1 . Stand 2 . Desk 3. Stand 4. Stand 5. Desk 6. Home Indicators of Poverty (Weighted and Head of Homes between the Age ranges 15–60) FHHs: Descriptive Figures (Entire Sample) FHHs: Detailed Statistics (Below vs . Previously mentioned Poverty 2000-01) FHHs: Descriptive Statistics (Below vs . Previously mentioned Poverty 2004-05) FHHs Living Below Lower income: T-test pertaining to Differences in SES Characteristics (2000-01 and 2004-05) Probit Estimates for Woman Heads Living Below/Above Poverty Line between 2000-01 and 2004-2005 v 1 two 5 doze 13 15

6 six 8 9 9 15

ABSTRACT The paper tries to empirically test a naïve version of precisely what is rather stylistically termed as " feminisation of poverty”, using the sub-sample of female -headed households (FHHs) from two household surveys in Pakistan. Although, the database is definitely constrained by simply quality elements and little sample size, the following findings add to the richness of current research in this field: (a) The numerical occurrence of low income among homeowners headed by simply females is less than that for any households in the area, at the national, urban and rural level for both the years. This can be followed to the discovering that more than 70 percent of homeowners headed by simply females receive remittances, (b) The prevalence of poverty among FHHs during the period 2000-01 to 2004-05 did not decline as soon as it did for combined households, country wide. In urban areas, it would not decline whatsoever, (c) Among the determinants of poverty of FHHs, illiteracy, dependency and rural property exacerbate lower income, while remittances domestic and/ or international reduce lower income, (d) The dynamics of incidence of poverty between FHHs during the period suggested that Illiteracy as the factor exacerbating poverty started to be less significant in 2004-05. Moreover, home in non-urban areas was also a weaker factor in determining the prevalence of low income. By far the most significant contribution in reducing the incidence of poverty was self-employment in agriculture in 2004-05.

I. INTRODUCTION* The supreme objective of development endeavours is generally recognized to be the removal of low income. Recent years include witnessed unparalleled efforts in the global level to battle the risk of lower income and deprivation, most notable becoming the ownership of the Centuries Declaration in 2000, capturing 150 international locations of the world toward achieving 8 Millennium Development Goals simply by 2015. The first target is halving poverty simply by 2015. Whilst concerted efforts are being made internationally for treating poverty, there exists a growing realisation that low income is increasingly taking on a female form, meaning that globally women are bearing a disproportionately higher and growing burden of poverty. This assertion because articulated by concept of feminisation of low income has been beneath much issue and discussion in expansion policy sectors in recent...

Referrals: 2 one particular

4 In case there is Pakistan, Mohiuddin (1989) analyzed the magnitude of low income amo ng a sample of 100 home female servants in the associated with Karachi, using five several definitions of household headship7