Environment of Globe

March 11, 2008


Submitted under: terrestrial vegetation — gargpk @ 1: forty-five pm

Tags: India, Vegetation

805 Votes

India is situated at tropical latitudes and provides diverse temp and rainfall regimes. The general climate of India is appropricate for the growth of forests. The climax composition of Indian subcontinent have been completely altered substantially resulting from human activities in the last handful of thousand years. However , the vegetation implies that the all-natural vegetation of India mainly consists of jungles. The grasslands found in areas are not natural plant composition but have began secondarily due to destruction of natural forests in some places. Therefore , these symbolize various phases of seral (successional) development due to the affect of a various biotic influences.

Source: Forest Survey of India, Dehradun. State of forest record 2001. Dehradun, FSI, 2002. 12p.


The most important factors influencing the physiognomy, types composition, phenology etc . of Indian woodlands are temperatures, rainfall, local edaphic and biotic elements. These factors have been employed in the category of Indian forests. Many detailed category of American indian forests is by Champion and Seth (1967) in which of sixteen major types of forests have been recognized. These sixteen major types can be grouped into five major types viz. damp tropical, dried out tropical, montane sub-tropical, temperate and alpine forests.

All-natural Vegetations in India

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These forests are found inside the areas of quite high temperature and rainfall. The forests will be dense, multi-layered and have a number of trees, shrubs and lians. These woodlands are additional categorized into 4 types depending on the degree of wetness inside the area as well as the dominant your life form in the forest.

(1) Tropical wet evergreen jungles

These are weather climax woodlands found typically in areas having total annual rainfall over 250 centimeter and temperatures 25-30oC. These kinds of forests happen to be chiefly given away on the european face of Western Ghats, Assam, Agarrar, parts of West Bengal, northern Canara, Annamalai Hills and Coorg in Meysore and Andman Island destinations.

The feature feature of such forests is usually dense regarding very taller trees having height greater than 45 meters. Climbers, lians, epiphytes and shrubs happen to be abundant yet herbs and grasses happen to be rare during these forests. The carpet level of herbal products and solide can not develop because incredibly dense coating of leaf canopy of trees will not allow enough light to reach to the surface.

Dominant trees and shrubs in woodlands of western world coast are Dipterocarpus indica, Palaquim and Cellenia while in woodlands of Assam Diptercarpus macrocarpus, D. turbinatus, Shorea assamica, Mesua ferrea and Kayea are the dominating trees.

Common subdominants in these forests are Mangifera, Eugenia, Myristica, Pterospermum, Polyalthia, Elaeocarpus, Schlechera, Artocarpus, Memeocylon, Poeciloneuron, Cinnamomum, Diospyros, Sapindus, Vitex, Holigarna, Alstonia, Hardwickia, Spondias, Dendrocalamus, Calamus, Bombax, Veteria, Calophyllum, Pandanus, Cedrela, Tetrameles, Strobilanthes, Emblica, Michelia, Ixora, Hopea, Lagerstroemia, several types of ferns and orchids.

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(2) Warm moist semi-evergreen forests

They are also climatic climax forests found commonly in regions of annual rainfall 200-250 centimeter and temperature 25-32oC. These forests are chiefly given away along the American Ghats, in upper areas of Assam and Orissa in addition to Andman Islands. These woodlands are more created in the northern India as compared to southern India.

Characteristic characteristic of these jungles is thick growth of classic trees intermixed with perishable trees that shed their leaves pertaining to very brief period of comparable dryness. Typical height of trees during these forests is definitely 25-35 m and shrubs are common. Jungles have rich carpet...